Baroreceptors in the Aorta

Baroreceptors in the Aorta

Aorta-resident baroreceptors help regulate the size of blood vessels. They transmit nerve impulses and innervate smooth muscle in the arterioles. The result is vasomotor tone. In the aorta, there are several major baroreceptors located in the carotid sinus, the aortic arch, and the right atrium.


It is crucial for the heart to maintain a narrow range of blood pressure to avoid the occurrence of strokes, heart attacks, and aneurysms. Baroreceptors in the aorta monitor blood pressure by sensing changes in blood pressure. The mechanical signals emitted by baroreceptors propagate along afferent fibres to a variety of brainstem locations. These signals control reflex adjustments in heart rate, vascular tone, and cardiac contractility.

Several studies have demonstrated that baroreceptor neurons in the aorta are sensitive to changes in aortic pressure. Interestingly, TRPC5 is involved in the monitoring of aortic pressure. In mice, this sensory nerve is found in the aorta. Activation of this nerve by a hypoosmolar concentration activates a whole-cell cationic current. Inhibitors of TRPCs inhibit this current.


The aorta has a system of chemoreceptors which detect changes in arterial blood oxygen and initiate reflexes for homeostasis during hypoxemia. This system is thought to comprise the carotid and aortic bodies. Similar tissues have been identified in the abdomen and thorax. The role of these chemoreceptors is discussed and studied in this section.

The aorta is home to two types of chemoreceptors: the carotid baroreceptors are located at the root of the internal carotid artery and the aortic arch, respectively. These receptors respond to arterial stretch and to changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, and blood pressure. These receptors are also found on the ventral surface of the medulla.

The aorta has a pair of chemoreceptors – central and peripheral – that detect changes in arterial blood pressure. The central chemoreceptors respond to changes in the partial pressure of CO2 in the immediate environment. In turn, this system regulates ventilation to maintain a constant carbon dioxide partial pressure and to maintain adequate oxygen in the arterial blood.


The aorta contains two types of receptors, the baroreflex and the rennin. The baroreflex is located in the aorta and controls the heart rate. The rennin regulates the heart rate through a variety of mechanisms, including the release of catecholamines, which are hormones produced by the adrenal glands.

During a heart attack, the aortic reflex is activated in response to a sudden increase in blood pressure. This increases the activity of the vagal nerve, which inhibits the sympathetic outflow. This in turn lowers the heart rate and blood pressure. The baroreflex is also present in the walls of large veins and the atria of the heart, where they are involved in the regulation of blood volume. The volume of blood determines the mean pressure in the system. Most blood is held in the venous side, while the rennin and vagal nerves are located in the arterial side.

In experiments, TRPC5 acts as a pressure sensor in baroreceptor neurons. TRPC5 closely resembles the stretch-activated channel. Mice lacking Trpc5 showed a reduction in aortic depressor nerve stimulation and reduced baroreflex-mediated heart rate responses. In addition, the mice lacked TRPC5 showed daily blood pressure instability. Hence, TRPC5 may play an important role in the mechanosensation of baroreceptors.

Aorta receptors

Aorta receptors in the brain send information to the autonomic nervous system when arterial blood pressure falls. This response slows the heartbeat and increases the cardiac output. Vasoconstriction reduces blood pressure, and the heart is therefore able to pump more blood. However, when blood pressure falls too far, the system may fail to respond, leading to tissue damage. This reflex can be prevented by treating underlying causes of high blood pressure.

Aorta receptors are located at the bifurcation of the carotid artery, where they sense changes in blood pressure. They are also located in the walls of the right atrium and the ventricles. They send messages to the brain and affect the release of hormones and salt and water. These receptors have a limited direct influence on HR. However, they are critical to monitoring blood pressure.

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